Systematic design and evaluation of a citation function classification scheme in indonesian journals

Yaniasih Yaniasih, Indra Budi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Classifying citations according to function has many benefits when it comes to information retrieval tasks, scholarly communication studies, and ranking metric developments. Many citation function classification schemes have been proposed, but most of them have not been systematically designed for an extensive literature-based compilation process. Many schemes were also not evaluated properly before being used for classification experiments utilizing large datasets. This paper aimed to build and evaluate new citation function categories based upon sufficient scientific evidence. A total of 2153 citation sentences were collected from Indonesian journal articles for our dataset. To identify the new categories, a literature survey was conducted, analyses and groupings of category meanings were carried out, and then categories were selected based on the dataset’s characteristics and the purpose of the classification. The evaluation used five criteria: coherence, ease, utility, balance, and coverage. Fleiss’ kappa and automatic classification metrics using machine learning and deep learning algorithms were used to assess the criteria. These methods resulted in five citation function categories. The scheme’s coherence and ease of use were quite good, as indicated by an inter-annotator agreement value of 0.659 and a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) F1-score of 0.93. According to the balance and coverage criteria, the scheme still needs to be improved. This research data was limited to journals in food science published in Indonesia. Future research will involve classifying the citation function using a massive dataset collected from various scientific fields and published from some representative countries, as well as applying improved annotation schemes and deep learning methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number27
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • Annotator agreement
  • Citation function
  • Classification scheme
  • Deep learning
  • Machine learning


Dive into the research topics of 'Systematic design and evaluation of a citation function classification scheme in indonesian journals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this