Synthesis of Lithium Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) through hydrothermal process by using Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) and Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) xerogel

Bambang Priyono, Anne Zulfia Syahrial, Akhmad Herman Yuwono, Evvy Kartini, Mario Marfelly, Wahid Muhamad Furkon Rahmatulloh

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22 Citations (Scopus)


Lithium Titanate (Li4Ti5O12) or (LTO) has a potential as an anode material for a high performance lithium ion battery. In this work, LTO was synthesized by a hydrothermal method using Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) xerogel prepared by a sol-gel method and Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH). The sol-gel process was used to synthesize TiO2 xerogel from a titanium tetra-n-butoxide/Ti(OC4H9)4 precursor. An anatase polymorph was obtained by calcining the TiO2 xerogel at a low temperature, i.e.: 300°C and then the hydrothermal reaction was undertaken with 5M LiOH aqueous solution in a hydrothermal process at 135°C for 15 hours to form Li4Ti5O12. The sintering process was conducted at a temperature range varying from 550°C, 650°C, and 750°C, respectively to determine the optimum characteristics of Li4Ti5O12. The characterization was based on Scanning Thermal Analysis (STA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) testing results. The highest intensity of XRD peaks and FTIR spectra of the LTO were found at the highest sintering temperature (750°C). As a trade-off, however, the obtained LTO/Li4Ti5O12 possesses the smallest BET surface area (< 0.001 m2/g) with the highest crystallite size (56.45 nm).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Anode material
  • Hydrothermal
  • Li-ion battery
  • LiTiO
  • Sintering
  • Sol-gel
  • TiO xerogel


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