Synthesis, characterizations, and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/NiBi2O4

Tesar Chandra Esnawan, Dewangga Oky Bagus Apriandanu, Rizki Marcony Surya, Hitoshi Watarai, Muhammad Ridwan, Yoki Yulizar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


ZnO/NiBi2O4 was successfully synthesized using patikan kebo leaf extract (PKLE) in a two-phase system. The band gap value of ZnO/NiBi2O4 was 2.72 eV, which is actively in the visible region. The photocatalytic activity of ZnO/NiBi2O4 showed better degradation of malachite green than that of ZnO and NiBi2O4. The degradation efficiency over ZnO/NiBi2O4, NiBi2O4, and ZnO were 92.30 %, 77.33 %, and 55.99 %, respectively, under visible light for 120 min. The reaction rate constant using ZnO/NiBi2O4 was greater than that of ZnO and NiBi2O4, suggesting that the modification of ZnO with NiBi2O4 increased the photodegradation activity by hindering the photorecombination of electron-holes in ZnO. Notably, O2, ∙OH, and h+ are identified as crucial species that play a vital role in the degradation process confirmed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis. This work studied potential ZnO/NiBi2O4 materials for photocatalytic dye degradation applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number136387
JournalMaterials Letters
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jun 2024


  • Patikan kebo extract
  • Photocatalytic activity
  • Two-phase synthesis
  • ZnO/NiBiO


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