Surveillance and Selective Treatment of Brugia malayi Filariasis Eleven Years after Stopping Mass Drug Administration in Belitung District, Indonesia

Taniawati Supali, Yenny Djuardi, Santoso, Lita Renata Sianipar, Nungki Hapsari Suryaningtyas, Rahmat Alfian, Yossi Destani, Elisa Iskandar, Hendri Astuty, Noviani Sugianto, Peter U. Fischer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Brugia malayi is the major cause of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Indonesia. Zoophilic B. malayi was endemic in Belitung district, and mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole ceased after five annual rounds in 2010. The district passed three transmission assessment surveys (TAS) between 2011 and 2016. As part of the post-TAS3 surveillance of the national LF elimination program, we collected night blood samples for microfilaria (Mf) detection from 1,911 subjects more than 5 years of age in seven villages. A B. malayi Mf prevalence ranging from 1.7% to 5.9% was detected in five villages. Only 2 (5%) of the total 40 Mf-positive subjects were adolescents aged 18 and 19 years old, and 38 (95%) Mf-positive subjects were 21 years and older. Microfilarial densities in infected individuals were mostly low, with 60% of the subjects having Mf densities between 16 and 160 Mf/mL. Triple-drug treatment with ivermectin, DEC, and albendazole (IDA) was given to 36 eligible Mf-positive subjects. Adverse events were mostly mild, and treatment was well tolerated. One year later, 35 of the treated Mf-positive subjects were reexamined, and 33 (94%) had cleared all Mf, while the anti-Bm14 antibody prevalence remained almost unchanged. Results indicate that in B. malayi-endemic areas, post-TAS3 surveillance for Mf in the community may be needed to detect a potential parasite reservoir in adults. Selective treatment with IDA is highly effective in clearing B. malayi Mf and should be used to increase the prospects for LF elimination if MDA is reintroduced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)111-116
Number of pages6
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume110
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

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