Background and purpose: Spirometry induced deep-inspiration-breath-hold (DIBH) reduces intrafractional motion during upper abdominal stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether surface scanning (SGRT) is an adequate surrogate for monitoring residual internal motion during DIBH. Residual motion detected by SGRT was compared with experimental 4D-ultrasound (US) and an internal motion detection benchmark (diaphragm-dome-position in kV cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections). Materials and methods: Intrafractional monitoring was performed with SGRT and US in 460 DIBHs of 12 patients. Residual motion detected by all modalities (SGRT (anterior-posterior (AP)), US (AP, craniocaudal (CC)) and CBCT (CC)) was analyzed. Agreement analysis included Wilcoxon signed rank test, Maloney and Rastogi's test, Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: Interquartile range was 0.7 mm (US(AP)), 0.8 mm (US(CC)), 0.9 mm (SGRT) and 0.8 mm (CBCT). SGRT(AP) vs. CBCT(CC) and US(CC) vs. CBCT(CC) showed comparable agreement (PCCs 0.53 and 0.52, ICCs 0.51 and 0.49) with slightly higher precision of CBCT(CC). Most agreement was observed for SGRT(AP) vs. US(AP) with largest PCC (0.61) and ICC (0.60), least agreement for SGRT(AP) vs. US(CC) with smallest PCC (0.44) and ICC (0.42). Conclusions: Residual motion detected during spirometry induced DIBH is small. SGRT alone is no sufficient surrogate for residual internal motion in all patients as some high velocity motion could not be detected. Observed patient-specific residual errors may require individualized PTV-margins.
- DIBH (deep-inspiration-breath-hold)
- SGRT (surface-guided radiotherapy)
- Ultrasound-based monitoring