The objective of this study was to assess the effect of radon exposure on the modulation of endogenous antioxidants in a population chronically exposed to high levels of radon indoors. To do so, we measured the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of people living in an area with high indoor radon concentration (Tande-Tande sub-village, Indonesia). The activities of SOD and GPX in Tande-Tande inhabitants were compared with those in subjects living in the Topoyo village (Indonesia), an area with low indoor radon levels. The activities of SOD and GPX in Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants did not differ from those in people living in the Topoyo village (0.37 ± 0.021 versus 0.28 ± 0.018 U/mg protein and 8.46 ± 1.48 versus 8.34 ± 1.65 U/mg protein, p >.05). For both populations, there was a significant positive correlation between SOD and GPX activities (p <.001). No significant effects of gender, age, smoking habit, and body mass index on SOD and GPX activities were found for both groups. Although no significant modulation of SOD and GPX activities in PBMCs was detected, further studies should expand the sample size and also assess antioxidant levels in the serum. This study provides a first picture of endogenous antioxidant systems in Tande-Tande sub-village inhabitants, but a more comprehensive analysis, including the measurement of catalase (CAT) activity, might provide additional insight into the effects of chronic exposure to high indoor radon concentrations.