Study of mixing saprolite with limonite in selective reduction process

Fajar Nurjaman, Yusuf Fajar, Fathan Bahfie, Yuliana Sari, Dina Istiqomah Khoerunnisa, La Ode Arham, Mohammad Badaruddin, Bambang Suharno, Sugiyanto

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


Selective reduction of nickel laterite is a pyrometallurgical process using slightly lower temperatures (1100-1200°C) than conventional smelting technology, such as blast furnaces and rotary kiln electric arc furnaces. It is followed by the physical upgrading using a magnetic separation process to deliberate ferronickel from the impurities. In addition, the additive of sodium sulfate is added to increase the nickel recovery. Limiting the addition of reductant can also be carried out to reduce the metallization of iron, thus increasing the nickel grade in ferronickel. Nevertheless, its low nickel recovery due to ferronickel's small particle size is still a significant problem in this selective reduction process for saprolitic nickel ore at low-temperature. In this work, the effect of the mixture of saprolite and limonite in the reduction process on the particle growth of ferronickel will be investigated clearly. The nickel laterite was reduced in a muffle furnace at 1150°C for 60 minutes, followed by a wet magnetic separation process using 500 Gauss of a magnetic field. The XRF was used to identify the iron and nickel in the concentrate and tailings, while the XRD and SEM-EDS were used to analyze the phase transformation along the reduction process and microstructure of the reduced ore. The results showed that the optimal process for limonite and saprolite was generated by adding 0.2 stoichiometry reductant. In the saprolite reduction process, ferronickel's nickel grade is higher, but the recovery is lower than limonite. Mixing saprolite with limonite increased the ferronickel particle size, increasing nickel recovery. Nevertheless, the nickel grade in ferronickel decreased.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAIP Conference Proceedings
EditorsSigit Dwi Yudanto, Ari Yustisia Akbar, Fendy Rokhmanto, Made Subekti Dwijaya, Muhammad Yunan Hasbi, Wahyu Mayangsari, Yudi Nugraha Thaha
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics
ISBN (Electronic)9780735448124
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2024
Event5th International Seminar on Metallurgy and Materials, ISMM 2022 - Tangerang Selatan, Indonesia
Duration: 22 Nov 202223 Nov 2022

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference5th International Seminar on Metallurgy and Materials, ISMM 2022
CityTangerang Selatan


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