Survival of retinoblastoma is >90% in developed countries but there are significant differences with developing countries in stage at presentation, available treatment options, family compliance, and survival. In low-income countries (LICs), children present with advanced disease, and the reasons are socioeconomic and cultural. In middle-income countries (MICs), survival rates are better (>70%), but there is a high prevalence of microscopically disseminated extraocular disease. Programs for eye preservation have been developed, but toxicity-related mortality is higher. Although effective treatment of microscopically extraocular disease improved the outcome, worldwide survival will be increased only by earlier diagnosis and better treatment adherence.
- Developing countries
- Late diagnosis