Strategies to manage retinoblastoma in developing countries

Guillermo L. Chantada, Ibrahim Qaddoumi, Serife Canturk, Vikas Khetan, Zhigui Ma, Kahaki Kimani, Baris Yeniad, Iyad Sultan, Rita S. Sitorus, Nurdan Tacyildiz, David H. Abramson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

105 Citations (Scopus)


Survival of retinoblastoma is >90% in developed countries but there are significant differences with developing countries in stage at presentation, available treatment options, family compliance, and survival. In low-income countries (LICs), children present with advanced disease, and the reasons are socioeconomic and cultural. In middle-income countries (MICs), survival rates are better (>70%), but there is a high prevalence of microscopically disseminated extraocular disease. Programs for eye preservation have been developed, but toxicity-related mortality is higher. Although effective treatment of microscopically extraocular disease improved the outcome, worldwide survival will be increased only by earlier diagnosis and better treatment adherence.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)341-348
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Blood and Cancer
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011


  • Compliance
  • Developing countries
  • Late diagnosis
  • Retinoblastoma


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