State of emergency medicine in Indonesia

Liga Yusvirazi, Andi Ade Wijaya Ramlan, Peter C. Hou

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: As an emerging country with the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia's purchasing power has strengthened, leading to socioeconomic changes that affect its healthcare system. Additionally, there is a surge of healthcare utilisation after the implementation of a new national insurance scheme, particularly within emergency departments. Similar to other low- to middle-income countries, Indonesia has not prioritised the progress of emergency medicine despite existing evidence that suggests that the early intervention of many acute conditions lowers the rates of morbidity and mortality. This article will review the past and current state of emergency medicine in Indonesia. Methods: The information gathered through PubMed, Ovid, and private and government institution databases, using the search term ‘Indonesia’, ‘Emergency Medicine’, ‘Emergency Medical Services’, and ‘Disaster Medicine’. Additionally, we interviewed physicians who are involved in the development of emergency medicine in Indonesia. Results: Indonesia's emergency medicine can be broken down into three sections: pre-hospital, hospital and the development of emergency medicine as a specialty. At the pre-hospital setting, disaster medicine and emergency medical service have not been established well enough to meet the demands of the population. For hospitals, there are two types of emergency departments – academic versus non-academic. Currently, there is no accredited emergency medicine residency programme despite the recognition of the specialty. Conclusion: The development of emergency medicine in Indonesia is in its infancy and will require rapid improvement to meet its country's demand. Academic, private and government sectors need to collaborate to promote and invest in emergency medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)820-826
Number of pages7
JournalEMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2018


  • Indonesia
  • disaster medicine
  • emergency medical system
  • emergency medicine


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