Indonesia consist of many island inhabited by many ethnic groups with different social economic condition. As in other parts of the world, anemia is still one of the major health problem in Indonesia. The reported anemia prevalence differs in each area and age groups, ranging from 5.4% in well nourished preschool children to 56.3% in primary school children; and 19% to 62.5% in pregnant women. The causes of anemia mostly reported were nutritional like iron deficiency, abnormal hemoglobin besides other conditions. In Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital as the national referral hospital in Indonesia, in the adults groups, the cause of anemia reported were 14% with iron deficiency, 54% aplastic, 16% hemolytic and 16% other causes. Whereas in the child health department the cause were 29% nutritional deficiency, 31% thalassemia, 10% aplastic, 4% hemolytic and 26% other causes. Thalassemia is quite often reported in Indonesia. In 1955 Lie-Injo first reported the HbE as the most frequently found abnormality among many ethnic groups in Indonesia, ranging from 2.5% to 13.2%. In later studies the prevalence reported varies very much. It was reported as 9.5% in newborns, 22% in pregnant women, and 15.95% to 60% in athletes. The carrier frequency in some areas was between 6-10%, while the pattern of mutation varied widely within each region. Hemophilia cases in Indonesia is still not diagnosed adequately, only 530 cases were reported. The problems were lack of diagnostic laboratories and awareness. As many as 56.9% of the hemophilia patients who received cryoprecipitate were reported positive with HCV antibody. Hematological malignancy is now also became an increasing problem in Indonesia, in child health department the prevalence of leukemia was 57%, and lymphoma 13% among other malignancies. In National Cancer hospital, the prevalence leukemia as diagnosed using morphology and flowcytometry, were 51.4% AML, 19.7% B-ALL, 14.6% T-ALL, 4.5% preB-ALL, with 9.8% cases with co expression, and 30% other malignancies. Due to geographical situation, economic condition and lack of diagnostic laboratory facility many abnormalities were unable to be diagnosed properly.