SKD 61 material surface treatment with electric discharge machining using Cu, CuCr & graphite electrodes and dielectric fluid jatropha curcas

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The emergence of white layer in each process of Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) becomes the focus of attention of the experts. It is harder than the base metal would be advantageous to withstand friction engine components, such as the plastic molding industry. From various studies it has been reported that the increase in the value of hardness of white layer either due to migration of the electrode material and dielectric fluid to the white layer. This paper discusses the influence of electrodes Cu, CuCr and graphite as well as jatrophacurcas dielectric fluid to the surface of the material SKD 61, microhardness of the white layer, Tool Wear Rate (TWR) of Material Removal Rate (MRR), Surface roughness (Ra) and the microstructure. Initial studies conducted are the transesterification and characterization of jatrophacurcas to determine the dielectric strength and the content of metal elements. Furthermore, the EDM testing is done to dies steel of SKD 61 using the electrodes of Cu, CuCr and Graphite. The use of jatrophacurcas yield the best MRR when using Graphite electrodes followed Cu last CuCr. While the smallest TWR produced by Cu electrode, CuCr and then the highest is Graphite. The relative wear which is the ratio TWR with MRR, for the three types of electrodes is always great at a small current then decreases and then tends to be stable with the increase of electric current. Jatrophacurcas for the three types of electrodes provide higher TWR than kerosene. This means that migration of materials is beneficial because larger material, but in terms of the geometric accuracy of the product can lead to decreasing of dimensional tolerances. Vickers hardness values of white layer is achieved by CuCr electrodes, Graphite lowest. Microstructural observation results of EDM white layer using graphite electrodes produce a more uniform thickness than the white layer using Cu and CuCr electrodes. The conclusion of this study that jatrophacurcas can be used as a dielectric fluid in EDM process, because electrode wear during EDM process is relatively high compared with kerosene that is mean more profitable in the surface treatment process of dies steel of SKD 61.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Materials, Processing and Manufacturing
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Event13th International Conference on Quality in Research, QiR 2013 - Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Duration: 25 Jun 201328 Jun 2013

Publication series

NameAdvanced Materials Research
ISSN (Print)1022-6680


Conference13th International Conference on Quality in Research, QiR 2013


  • EDM
  • Jatrophacurcas
  • Metal removal rate
  • SKD 61
  • Tool wear rate


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