Simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine at highly boron-doped diamond electrodes by using liquid chromatography

Ivandini Tribidasari Anggraningrum, Kensuke Honda, Tata N. Rao, Akira Fujishima, Yasuaki Einaga

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114 Citations (Scopus)


Highly boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode, have been examined for simultaneous detection of purine and pyrimidine bases in mild acidic media by using HPLC with amperometric detection. Cyclic voltammetry at as-deposited (AD) and anodically oxidized (AO) BDD were used to study the electrochemistry and to optimize the condition for HPLC applications. At AO BDD electrode, due to its higher overpotential of oxygen evolution reaction, well-defined anodic peaks were observed for the oxidation of purine and pyrimidine bases in acid medium, whereas at AD BDD the oxidation peak of thymine was overlapped with the anodic current of oxygen evolution. The chromatograms of adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and 5-methylcytosine mixture were well resolved by using a silica-based column and a solution of 5% acetonitrile in 100 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.25) as the mobile phase. The detection was carried out at AO BDD electrode at an applied potential of 1.6 V versus Ag/AgCl. Linear calibration curves were obtained within the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 μM with the limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranging from 26.3 to 162.1 nM, resulting in an order of magnitude higher sensitivities than those at conventional electrodes. HPLC analysis with diamond amperometric detector was successfully applied for determination of 5-methylcytosine in real DNA samples with high reproducibility. No deactivation of the electrode was found during cyclic voltammetric and HPLC measurements, indicating the high stability for analysis of biological samples.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)648-655
Number of pages8
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2007


  • Anodically oxidized diamond
  • DNA damage
  • Liquid chromatography
  • Purine
  • Pyrimidine


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