Background: We studied the serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates carried by children infected with HIV in Jakarta, Indonesia.
Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 90 HIV infected children aged 4 to 144 months. S. pneumoniae was identified by conventional and molecular methods. Serotyping was performed with sequential multiplex PCR and antibiotic susceptibility with the disk diffusion method.
Results: We identified S. pneumoniae carriage in 41 children (46%). Serotype 19F was most common among 42 cultured strains (19%) followed by 19A and 6A/B (10% each), and 23F (7%). Most isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (86%), followed by clindamycin (79%), erythromycin (76%), tetracycline (43%), and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (41%). Resistance to penicillin was most common with only 33% of strains being susceptible. Strains of serotypes targeted by the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate polysaccharide vaccine (PCV13) were more likely to be multidrug resistant (13 of 25 or 52%) compared to non-PCV13 serotype isolates (3 of 17 or 18%; Fisher exact test p = 0.05).
Conclusion: Our study provides insight into the epidemiology of pneumococcal carriage in young HIV patients in Indonesia. These findings may facilitate potential preventive strategies that target invasive pneumococcal disease in Indonesia.