Serious fungal disease incidence and prevalence in Indonesia

Retno Wahyuningsih, Robiatul Adawiyah, Ridhawati Sjam, Joedo Prihartono, Endah Ayu Tri Wulandari, Anna Rozaliyani, Robertus Ronny, Darma Imran, Mulyati Tugiran, Forman E. Siagian, David W. Denning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Indonesia is a tropical country, warm and humid, with numerous environmental fungi. Data on fungal disease burden help policymakers and clinicians. Objectives: We have estimated the incidence and prevalence of serious fungal diseases. Methods: We found all published and unpublished data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on populations at risk. HIV data were derived from UNAIDS (2017), pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) data from 2013–2019, data on chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) were used to estimate CPA prevalence and likely deaths, COPD data from Hammond (2020), lung cancer incidence was from Globocan 2018, and fungal rhinosinusitis was estimated using community data from India. Results: Overall ~7.7 million Indonesians (2.89%) have a serious fungal infection each year. The annual incidence of cryptococcosis in AIDS was 7,540. Pneumocystis pneumonia incidence was estimated at 15,400 in HIV and an equal number in non-HIV patients. An estimated 1% and 0.2% of new AIDS patients have disseminated histoplasmosis or Talaromyces marneffei infection. The incidence of candidaemia is 26,710. The annual incidence of invasive aspergillosis was estimated at 49,500 and the prevalence of CPA is at 378,700 cases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis prevalence in adults is estimated at 336,200, severe asthma with fungal sensitisation at 443,800, and fungal rhinosinusitis at 294,000. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is estimated at 5 million/year (15–50 years old). The incidence of fungal keratitis around 40,050. Tinea capitis prevalence in schoolchildren about 729,000. Conclusions: Indonesia has a high burden of fungal infections.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1203-1212
Number of pages10
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • aspergillosis
  • candidaemia
  • epidemiology


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