Selection of bone graft material and proper timing of periodontal surgery for orthodontic patients: A systematic review

Fathia Agzarine Deandra, Benso Sulijaya, Dewi Ayuningtyas Sudjatmika, Nadhia Anindhita Harsas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Bone loss progression due to periodontitis can lead to pathologic tooth migration, ultimately compromising the overall structure and function of the oral cavity. In pathologic tooth migration, a periodontal–orthodontic interdisciplinary approach is necessary. The combination of a bone graft and orthodontic treatment has shown promising results for periodontal regeneration. The treatment sequence and selection of a bone graft define the success of the therapy. Objective: This study aims to discuss the protocol of the interdisciplinary approach to regenerative periodontal surgery in cases of intrabony defects requiring orthodontic treatment. Material & methods: Literature searches were conducted on four online databases (PubMed, Wiley, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar). The keywords used were (intrabony defect OR vertical bone defect) AND (bone graft OR periodontal regeneration) AND (orthodontic). Out of 1656 studies that were retrieved initially, 14 full-text articles were checked for eligibility assessment. Finally, a total of seven studies met all of the requirements for inclusion in this study. This study includes two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which are considered the highest level of evidence, however it is important to note that the overall evidence base is heterogeneous, inclusive of various study designs. Discussion: Periodontal tissue damage must be addressed before considering orthodontic therapy, including cases with intrabony defects. On the basis of the seven studies, orthodontic therapy can be initiated as early as four weeks after surgery or as late as one year after periodontal surgery. Different types of bone graft materials, such as autografts, allografts, xenografts, and alloplasts, are used in the included studies. Three out of seven studies used autogenous graft combined with xenograft or enamel matrix derivative as the graft material as it is osteoconductive, osteogenic, and osteoinductive. Regular periodontal tissue maintenance therapy should be performed every 2–6 months, before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Conclusion: Making a proper diagnosis and treatment sequence is key to the success of a periodontal–orthodontic treatment. In addition, identifying the appropriate timing between periodontal surgery and orthodontic movement, selecting the most suitable bone graft material, and ensuring regular maintenance of periodontal tissue are important considerations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere24201
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2024


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