School location analysis by integrating the accessibility, natural and biological hazards to support equal access to education

Anjar Dimara Sakti, Muhammad Ario Eko Rahadianto, Biswajeet Pradhan, Hubbi Nashrullah Muhammad, I. Gusti Ayu Andani, Prasanti Widyasih Sarli, Muhammad Rais Abdillah, Tania Septi Anggraini, Andhika Dimas Purnomo, Riki Ridwana, Fajar Yulianto, Masita Dwi Mandini Manessa, Afina Nur Fauziyyah, Lissa Fajri Yayusman, Ketut Wikantika

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


This study proposes a new model for land suitability for educational facilities based on spatial product development to determine the optimal locations for achieving education targets in West Java, Indonesia. Single-aspect approaches, such as accessibility and spatial hazard analyses, have not been widely applied in suitability assessments on the location of educational facilities. Model development was performed based on analyses of the economic value of the land and on the integration of various parameters across three main aspects: accessibility, comfort, and a multi-natural/biohazard (disaster) risk index. Based on the maps of disaster hazards, higher flood-prone areas are found to be in gentle slopes and located in large cities. Higher risks of landslides are spread throughout the study area, while higher levels of earthquake risk are predominantly in the south, close to the active faults and megathrusts present. Presently, many schools are located in very high vulnerability zones (2057 elementary, 572 junior high, 157 senior high, and 313 vocational high schools). The comfort-level map revealed 13,459 schools located in areas with very low and low comfort levels, whereas only 2377 schools are in locations of high or very high comfort levels. Based on the school accessibility map, higher levels are located in the larger cities of West Java, whereas schools with lower accessibility are documented far from these urban areas. In particular, senior high school accessibility is predominant in areas of lower accessibility levels, as there are comparatively fewer facilities available in West Java. Overall, higher levels of suitability are spread throughout West Java. These distribution results revealed an expansion of the availability of schools by area: senior high schools, 303,973.1 ha; vocational high schools, 94,170.51 ha; and junior high schools, 12,981.78 ha. Changes in elementary schools (3936.69 ha) were insignificant, as the current number of elementary schools is relatively much higher. This study represents the first to attempt to integrate these four parameters—accessibility, multi natural hazard, biohazard, comfort index, and land value—to determine potential areas for new schools to achieve educational equity targets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Accessibility model
  • COVID-19
  • Natural and biological hazards
  • School location
  • West Java Province Indonesia


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