SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia

Iwan Ariawan, Hafizah Jusril, Muhammad N. Farid, Pandu Riono, Wiji Wahyuningsih, Widyastuti, Dwi Oktavia T.L. Handayani, Endang Sri Wahyuningsih, Rebekka Daulay, Retno Henderiawati, Safarina G. Malik, Rintis Noviyanti, Leily Trianty, Nadia Fadila, Khin Saw Aye Myint, Frilasita A. Yudhaputri, Neeraja Venkateswaran, Kodumudi Venkateswaran, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar, William A. HawleyJuliette Morgan, Paul M. Pronyk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in low- and middle-income countries remain poorly understood. This study aimed to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 antibodies seroprevalence in Jakarta, Indonesia, and to increase knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in urban settings. A population-based serosurvey among individuals aged one year or older was conducted in Jakarta. Employing a multistage sampling design, samples were stratified by district, slum and non-slum residency, sex, and age group. Blood samples were tested for IgG against three different SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Seroprevalence was estimated after applying sample weights and adjusting for cluster characteristics. In March 2021, this study collected 4,919 respondents. The weighted estimate of seroprevalence was 44.5% (95% CI = 42.5-46.5). Seroprevalence was highest among adults aged 30-49 years, with higher seroprevalence in women and the overweight/obese group. Respondents residing in slum areas were 1.3-fold more likely to be seropositive than non-slum residents. It was estimated that 4,717,000 of Jakarta's 10.6 million residents had prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. This suggests that approximately 10 infections were undiagnosed/underreported for every reported case. About one year after the first COVID-19 case was confirmed, close to half of Jakarta's residents have been infected by SARS-CoV-2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-174
Number of pages6
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • antibodies
  • COVID-19
  • immunity
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • seroprevalence


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