Sanitation inspection of household fecal containment in Bekasi, Indonesia

A. Septarini, B. B. Islami, G. L. Putri, M. A. Pratama, T. Foster, J. Willetts, C. R. Priadi

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


On-site sanitation (OSS) is widely known as the preferred system in Indonesia, providing low-cost wastewater treatment. The majority of households use pour-flush latrines coupled with containment in the form of cubluks or septic tanks, but compliance with relevant technical and maintenance standards is low. Poorly designed and unmanaged containment may not treat fecal waste effectively, potentially contaminating the groundwater and the soil and threatening human health. This study aimed to determine the condition and effluent quality of household fecal containment in Bekasi City. A social and technical survey was conducted through questionnaires and observations of 260 households in three poor urban villages of Jatiluhur, Sumur Batu, and Jatirangga, to obtain data on containment design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Effluent samples were collected from eight households, and laboratory tests were conducted to determine the chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids (TSS), ammonia, and E. coli levels. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, and the sanitation facilities in the three villages were categorized as safely managed (0.8%); basic (66%); limited (2.3%); unimproved (29%); and open defecation (1.5%) based on JMP sanitation ladder. On average, the effluent samples exceeded relevant quality standards, except regarding BOD (10.9 ± 4.14 mg/L) and pH (7 ± 0.3). The results of this study can be used as a baseline to improve the conditions of sanitation facilities in poor areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number012004
JournalIOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 24 May 2021
Event2020 6th International Conference on Advances in Environment Research, ICAER 2020 - Sapporo, Japan
Duration: 26 Aug 202028 Aug 2020


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