Sacrum morphometry and spinopelvic parameters among the Indonesian population using computed tomography scans

Arsanto Triwidodo, Ahmad Jabir Rahyussalim, Nyimas Diana Yulisa, Jacub Pandelaki, Lina Saleh Huraiby, Ivana Ariella Nita Hadi, Faza Yuspa Liosha, Ismail Hadisoebroto Dilogo

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This is a cross-sectional study. This study aims to describe the characteristics of sacrum vertebrae and spinopelvic parameters among the Indonesian population and compare them with studies from other populations. This study also intends to determine the sexual dimorphism of sacrum vertebrae and find the correlations between spinopelvic parameters. Morphometry of the sacrum is necessary for designing sacral prosthesis and instrumentations. Knowledge of spinopelvic parameters further supports the prosthesis installation procedure to restore the physiological spinal alignment of the patients. However, previous studies showed varied results among different populations. This is the first study to be conducted among the Indonesian population. Morphometric dimensions of sacrum vertebrae and the spinopelvic parameters (pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, lumbar lordosis) were analyzed using thin-cut (1 mm) computed tomography images in 150 males and 150 females, aged 25 to 50 years without any spinal pathology. Generally, the size of the sacrum vertebrae was greater in males (P < .05). The sacral index, curvature index, and corporo-basal index were statistically different between genders (P < .001). Lumbar lordosis was the only spinopelvic parameter found significantly greater in females (P < .001). Significant positive correlations between all spinopelvic parameters, except for lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt, were found in the present study (P < .001). The study serves as the first large series database of sacrum morphometric characteristics and spinopelvic parameters of the Indonesian population. There was significant gender-associated differences in various dimensions of sacrum vertebrae. The sacral index was found to be the most useful parameter for sex determination. There were strong significant positive correlations between various spinopelvic parameters. A comparison of populations revealed morphometric characteristic differences, which is proved to be critical in surgical implications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere27955
JournalMedicine (United States)
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2021


  • Computed tomography scans
  • Indonesian population
  • Morphometry
  • Sacrum vertebrae
  • Spinopelvic parameters


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