Over the past few decades, treatment options have become more advanced for multiple myeloma (MM), one of the most prevalent hematological cancers; however, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease due to its poor response to therapy and high rates of resistance, which cause relapsed/refractory or multiple myeloma. Researchers have described anti-BCMA (B-cell maturation antigen) as a promising treatment regimen that targets the BCMA biomarker in the affected plasma cells. BCMA is a protein that is specifically expressed in plasma-cell neoplasms by using several mechanisms, such as CAR T cells (Chimeric Antigen Receptor T cells), antibody-drug conjugates, and bispecific T-cell engagers, thus allowing for a rapid response in the treatment of resistant or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. Anti-BCMA treatment is novel and specific in its mechanisms of action, with noninferior complete responses, higher overall survival rates, and fewer reported adverse events compared to other currently available treatment of MM. In this review, we compared anti-BCMA mechanisms with those of previously available therapies, such as those using immunomodulators and proteasome inhibitors, and discussed the advantages of using anti-BCMA as a potential first-line treatment for multiple myeloma patients.
- multiple myeloma