Risk factors of mortality in the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A multicenter study in Indonesia

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Background and Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered a significant burden, and its associated rate of mortality is increasing. Therefore, a population-based cancer registry is considered an essential element in the baseline and comprehensive analysis of the risk factors associated with HCC. We present a multicenter analysis of HCC registry from 2 hospitals in Indonesia. Methods: We performed a follow-up on patients with HCC who were admitted between January 2015 and November 2017 in Cipto Mangunkusumo National General Hospital and Dharmais Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Patient's death was considered the primary outcome of the study. A multivariate analysis was conducted using logistic regression, and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: A total of 282 patients with HCC included. At the last follow-up, 136 (48.2%) patients had died. Mortality rate was not significantly affected by sex, age, etiology, the presence of cirrhosis, nor surveillance of HCC. Based on the Child-Pugh (CP) classification, the OR increased progressively in CP C patients (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.08-3.53; P = 0.026). The progressive increase was also found in patients with a higher Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, and the OR for CP C and D patients were 3.50 (95% CI 1.18-10.38; P = 0.024) and 3.41 (95% CI 1.02-11.41; P = 0.047), respectively. Supportive treatment was the most common treatment modality with an OR of 2.17 (95% CI 1.14-4.16; P = 0.019), and it was associated with the mortality rate of HCC. Conclusions: The CP classification, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging system, and treatment modality might predict mortality in patients with HCC. Moreover, other parameters must be further evaluated.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100480
JournalCurrent Problems in Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019


  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Mortality
  • Risk factors


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