Introduction: Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital malformations with a worldwide increasing trend over the years. Despite advancements in hypospadias repair, complications still occur. One of the most common complications of hypospadias repair surgery is Urethrocutaneous fistula. Studies attempting to analyze the association between the complication and risk factors are always beneficial, especially for studies performed in different areas of the world. We hypothesize that several evaluated risk factors among Indonesian hypospadias patients could be associated with the occurrence of urethrocutaneous fistula after the repair procedure. Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair surgery by collecting and analyzing data obtained from multiple centers in Indonesia. Materials and methods: A nationwide, retrospective study with 12 hospitals in Indonesia of children with a diagnosis of hypospadias was conducted. The collected data, taken from patients admitted in 2018, from each center's medical records consisted of patient identity, repair technique used, neourethra length, percutaneous cystostomy, and splint size as independent variables speculated to be possible risk factors correlated to the presence of urethrocutaneous fistulae. Binomial logistic regression analysis was performed using SPSS 21.0 to determine the relationship between urethrocutaneous fistulae as a post-repair complication and possible risk factors. Results: We collected 591 hypospadias cases from 12 centers in 9 cities in Indonesia. Most patients came when they were already at the age of more than four years old (60.4%). The chordee-only and failed urethroplasty groups are excluded from the analysis as they are not classified as true hypospadias. Most repairs were performed by using the Tubular Incised Plate (TIP) with Thiersch-Duplay technique (44.16%). Most of the reconstructed neourethra are 2–3 cm in length (32.13%). The 8 Fr urethral splint (46.41%) was mostly used during the operation. Most surgeons decided not to perform cystostomy throughout the procedure (61.03%) based on personal preferences. Urethrocutaneous fistula was found in 80 patients (15.27%) out of the total patients who underwent the surgery. The binomial logistic regression analysis shows that age (OR = 1.398, p = 0.015), the decision to not perform cystostomy (OR = 2.963, p = 0.014), and splint size (OR = 1.243, p = 0.023) are significantly associated (p < 0.05) with the development of urethrocutaneous fistula. Conclusion: Age and splint size are significant risk factors for urethrocutaneous fistula after hypospadias repair in Indonesia, whereas performing percutaneous cystostomy during the repair decreases the risk for urethrocutaneous fistula occurrence.
- Risk factors
- Urethrocutaneous fistula