Background Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is one of the major causes of infant blindness. There are several factors known as risk factors for ROP. Recent studies show ROP as a disease of multifactorial origin.Objective To report the prevalence of ROP in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta and its relation to several risk factors.Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from December 2003-May 2005. All infants with birth weight 2500 gramsor less, or gestational age 37 weeks or less, were enrolled consecutively and underwent the screening of ROP at 4 to 6 weeks of chronological age or 31 to 33 weeks of post conceptional age.Result Of 73 infant who met the inclusion criteria, 26% (19 out of 73 infant) had ROP in various degrees. About 36.8% (7 out of 19 infants) were in stage III or more/threshold ROP. No ROP was noted in infants born >35 weeks of gestational age, and birth weight>2100 grams. No severe ROP was found in gestational age >34 weeks and birth weight >1600 grams. None of full term, small forgestational age infants experienced ROP. Birth weight, sepsis,apneu, asphyxia, multiple blood transfusions, and oxygen therapy for more than 7 days were statistically significant with the development of ROP. However, using multivariate analysis, only asphyxia,multiple blood transfusions, and oxygen therapy for more than 7days were statistically significant with the development of ROP. Conclusion Screening of ROP should be performed in infants born 34 weeks of gestational age and/or birth weight <1600 grams.Infants with birth weight from 1600-<2100 grams need to be screened only if supplemental oxygen is necessary or with clinically severe illness.