Aim: To screen for ocular abnormalities in healthy full-term newborn infants using wide-field digital imaging and to analyze factors associated with the findings. Methods: A total of 1208 full-term newborn infants at a tertiary eye hospital (Cipto Mangunkusumo National Referral Hospital) and a district hospital in Jakarta (Koja Hospital) were enrolled to the study. All eligible newborns underwent fundus examination within 48 h after birth using the RetCam shuttle (Natus Medical Incorporated, USA). Retinal findings were documented and analyzed according to obstetric and neonatal risk factors. Results: Of the 1208 newborn infants enrolled, ocular abnormalities were found in 150 infants (12.4%). Retinal hemorrhage (RH) was the most common finding (88%) in which 2.67% involved the macula, followed by chorioretinitis (4.67%). Univariate analysis showed caesarean section (C-section) (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.18–0.41, p < 0.001) was a protective factor against RH, while prolonged labor increased the risk of developing RH (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.24–2.72, p = 0.002). Further multivariate analysis showed similar protective association between C-section and risk of RH (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.19–0.44, p < 0.001), while other risk factors were not. Conclusions: Our study showed that universal eye screening in healthy neonates is beneficial in the early diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of ocular abnormalities such as retinal hemorrhage, chorioretinitis and retinoblastoma. Retinal hemorrhage is the most common ocular abnormality and is associated with the delivery method and the duration of labor. Universal eye screening is visual-saving and life-saving for neonates with chorioretinitis, retinoblastoma as well as other abnormalities and should be mandatory in newborn screening.
- Healthy newborn
- Universal eye screening