Background: The trend of unhealthy lifestyles is increasing among adolescents and has been associated with the rising burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). However, specific determinants of unhealthy lifestyles among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries remain limited. Objective: To investigate the relationships of child-, parents-, and environment-associated determinants with diet quality, physical activity, and smoking habits among low-socioeconomic urban adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 238 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years was conducted in Jakarta, Indonesia. Adolescents and their parents were interviewed to assess the determinants of healthy lifestyles that included diet quality, physical activity, and smoking habits. Diet and physical activity were quantified using the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), respectively. Multiple regression was used to determine the β coefficients and odds ratios predictive of healthy lifestyles. Results: Mean scores of DQI-A and PAQ-C were considered low (33.5% ± 8.9% and 2.1 ± 0.5, respectively). Overall, 17.6% of adolescents were smokers, with 88% of these being males. Predictors of diet quality were child- (age, gender) and environment-associated (house size, access to a computer) determinants with β coefficients of −6.52 to 3.26. The PAQ-C score was associated with child- (female) and environment-associated (living area) determinants with β coefficients of −0.45 and 0.14, respectively. Younger adolescents and females were protective factors for smoking. Parents-associated determinants were not associated with any lifestyle indicators. Conclusions: Child- and environment-associated determinants were predictors of healthy lifestyles among adolescents. Thus, personal empowerment and environment transformation are needed to facilitate a healthy lifestyle and reduce the burden of NCDs among adolescents.
- diet quality
- physical activity