Recent Update on PCSK9 and Platelet Activation Experimental Research Methods: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

Meidi Utami Puteri, Nuriza Ulul Azmi, Salbiah Ridwan, Muhammad Iqbal, Tresni Fatimah, Tri Diana Puspita Rini, Mitsuyasu Kato, Fadlina Chany Saputri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a crucial factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. PCSK9 has been demonstrated to modify LDL plasma levels and increase platelet activation, which promotes atherosclerosis, a defining feature of nearly all cardiovascular diseases. Platelet activation has been shown to promote and maintain the response to atherosclerosis development, from beginning to progression and exacerbation, which can lead to advanced cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction (MI) or death. Research on PCSK9 and platelet activation is currently underway with the main goal of reducing the risk of advanced cardiovascular events by preventing or slowing down atherosclerosis progression. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have been used to explore PCSK9 functions to develop new drugs targeting PCSK9. Finding the most suitable study models that represent the pathological and physiological systems found in humans is very important to achieving the goal. This review aimed to present a current and comprehensive overview of the experimental models that have been used to investigate the role of PCSK9 in platelet activation-induced atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number258
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Development and Disease
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2022


  • animal models
  • atherosclerosis
  • cardiovascular disease
  • experimental methods
  • myocardial infarction
  • platelet activation
  • proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9


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