Direct urea fuel cell (DUFC) has attracted many researchers' attention due to the use of wastewater, for example urine, which contains urea for the fuel. The main factor to improve the electrochemical oxidation performance of urea and further enhance the performances of DUFC is the use of a good anode catalyst. Non-noble metal catalyst, such as nickel, is reported to have a good catalytic activity in alkaline medium towards urea electro-oxidation. Besides optimizing the anode catalyst, the use of supporting electrode which has a large surface area as well as the use of H2O2 as an oxidant to replace O2 could help to improve the performances. The recent progress in anode catalysts for DUFC is overviewed in this article. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages as well as the factors that could help to escalate the performance of DUFC are discussed together with the challenges and future perspectives.
- anode catalyst
- fuel cell