Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection continues to be an issue, particularly in countries with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. The effort to reduce the catastrophic cost of TB with the WHO’s End TB Strategy in 2035 is still obstructed by the emergence of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) cases as result of various mutations of the MTB strain. In the approach to combat DR-TB, several potential antitubercular agents were discovered as inhibitors for various existing and novel targets. Host-directed therapy and immunotherapy also gained attention as the drug-susceptibility level of the pathogen can be reduced due to the pathogen’s evolutionary dynamics. This review is focused on the current progress and challenges in DR-TB treatment. We briefly summarized antitubercular compounds that are under development and trials for both DR-TB drug candidates and host-directed therapy. We also highlighted several problems in DR-TB diagnosis, the treatment regimen, and drug discovery that have an impact on treatment adherence and treatment failure.
- Drug discovery and development
- Host-directed therapy