The rapid and continuous depletion of fossil-based resources has boosted extensive research on alternative energy from renewable resources. In this sense, heterogeneous catalysts play an inevitable role in converting renewable resources into fuels. The performance of heterogeneous catalysts strictly depends on their structures and physicochemical properties. As a rule of thumb, heterogeneous catalysts with large specific surface areas possess more catalytic sites to enhance the overall catalytic performance. Nanoporous materials have emerged as highly active heterogeneous catalysts due to their large internal surface area, enabling a high density of active catalytic sites. The presence of nanopores also allows the selectivity towards the desired products. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of recent advances of several typical nanoporous catalysts, i.e., zeolites, ordered mesoporous silica (OMS), metal- and covalent organic frameworks (MOFs and COFs), and nanoporous metals. Each nanoporous catalyst's characteristics and synthesis strategies are elaborated in detail, followed by discussions on their applications in various chemical processes to produce renewable fuels. Finally, challenges and opportunities for future improvement are provided.