This paper focuses on recent advances by the Indonesian Pediatric Gastroenterology in the field of diarrheal diseases: 1) the 'ROSE' system as the principle of treatment of diarrhea. It has been proven to be effective in reducing mortality rate of acute gastroenteritis, particularly cholera. R stands for rehydration, preferably with Ringer's lactate solution. O for Oralyte or oral glucose electrolyte, S for simultaneous rehydration (intravenously and orally), and E for educating parents in oral rehydration. 2) MCT and low lactose-containing formula in low birthweight infants give good to excellent results in improving fat malabsorption, elimination of diarrhea, and increase of body weight. 3) the use of the pediatric Enterotest duodenal capsule to study the upper intestinal microflora. The capsule consists of a number 1 size gelatin capsule (20 mm x 6 mm) containing a silicone rubber bag with an attached fine yarn line 90 cm long. The free end of the line is taped to the cheek and the patient swallows the capsule. After a certain period of time, the line is pulled out and intestinal secretions are scraped from the line and immediately examined under the microscope. Enterotest is particularly useful where radiologic examination is not available. 4) this report is the 1st to document virus particles in fecal specimens from Indonesian children, and suggests that viruses may be important etiological agents in diarrheal diseases in Indonesia, where malnutrition and diarrhea are important health problems.