Randomised controlled trial into the role of ramipril in fibrosis reduction in rheumatic heart disease: The RamiRHeD trial protocol

Ade Meidian Ambari, Budhi Setianto, Anwar Santoso, Basuni Radi, Bambang Dwiputra, Eliana Susilowati, Fadilla Tulrahmi, Annemiek Wind, Maarten Jan Maria Cramer, Pieter Doevendans

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a major burden in developing countries and accounts for 80% of all people living with the disease, where it causes most cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Chronic inflammation and fibrosis of heart valve tissue due to chronic inflammation in RHD will cause calcification and thickening of the impacted heart valves, especially the mitral valve. This fibrogenesis is enhanced by the production of angiotensin II by increased transforming growth factor β expression and later by the binding of interleukin-33, which is known to have antihypertrophic and antifibrotic effects, to soluble sST2. sST2 binding to this non-natural ligand worsens fibrosis. Therefore, we hypothesise that ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) would improve rheumatic mitral valve stenosis. Methods and analysis This is a single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial with a pre-post test design. Patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and valve dysfunction will be planned for cardiac valve replacement operation and will be given ramipril 5 mg or placebo for a minimum of 12 weeks before the surgery. The expression of ST2 in the mitral valve is considered to be representative of cardiac fibrosis. Mitral valve tissue will be stained by immunohistochemistry to ST2. Plasma ST2 will be measured by ELISA. This study is conducted in the Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, National Cardiac Center Harapan Kita Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, starting on 27 June 2019. Ethics and dissemination The performance and dissemination of this study were approved by the ethics committee of National Cardiovascular Center Harapan Kita with ethical code LB.02.01/VII/286/KEP.009/2018. Trial registration number NCT03991910.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere048016
JournalBMJ open
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 13 Sep 2021


  • cardiology
  • cardiothoracic surgery
  • valvular heart disease


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