Pulmonary arterial hypertension in Indonesia: Current status and local application of international guidelines

Lucia Kris Dinarti, Dyah Wulan Anggrahini, Oktavia Lilyasari, Bambang Budi Siswanto, Anggoro Budi Hartopo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have led to a significant improvement in the outcomes for patients with PAH. However, prompt and accurate diagnosis of PAH remains an unmet challenge due to lack of awareness and lack of meticulous data to profile the etiology and pathophysiology of this rare progressive disease, especially in low- and middle-income country. In Indonesia, the true prevalence and incidence of different subtypes of PAH in general population is still unknown. The Congenital HeARt Disease in adult and Pulmonary Hypertension (COHARD-PH) registry was the first single-center prospective registry in Indonesia, which indicated that almost 80% of adult patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) had experienced PAH and even Eisenmenger syndrome due to delayed diagnosis. Screening for early detection of asymptomatic CHD in children is yet to be systematically established in Indonesia, leading to undiagnosed and uncorrected CHD in adulthood. There are no specific national guidelines focusing on diagnostic workup and treatment of PAH in Indonesia. Furthermore, the lack of adequate diagnostic facilities, limited treatment availability, and limited drug coverage under the National Health Insurance Scheme are key issues that remain unaddressed. This review focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of PAH associated with CHD in Indonesia as per international guidelines. We have proposed recommendations to effectively control and prevent PAH associated with CHD in Indonesia. The paper should be of interest to readers in the area of medical management and policy makers especially in low- and middle-income countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number23
JournalGlobal Heart
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Congenital heart disease (CHD)
  • Etiology
  • Indonesia
  • International guideline
  • Lower middle-income region
  • Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)


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