Prostate-Specific Antigen as an Estimator of Prostate Volume in the Management of Patients with Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

C. A. Mochtar, L. A.L.M. Kiemeney, M. M. Van Riemsdijk, G. S. Barnett, M. P. Laguna, F. M.J. Debruyne, J. J.M.C.H. De La Rosette

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81 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To assess the ability of serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) to estimate prostate volume (PV) to aid in the management of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: From 1989 to 2002, data were collected from 2264 patients complaining of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) who visited the Department of Urology of the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Baseline PV and serum PSA was determined using standard techniques. All patients who had a baseline PV ≤200 ml, as well as a baseline serum PSA 0-10 ng/ml, were included. Patients with a history of prostate surgery, prostate cancer and conditions other than BPH at baseline were excluded. A log-transformed linear regression model was used to estimate PV. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to evaluate the ability of serum PSA to estimate threshold PVs in men with BPH, and to select the optimal serum PSA cut-off values. Results: The analyses included 1859 patients with a mean age of 63.5 years, mean baseline PV 43.9 ml, and mean baseline PSA value 3.1 ng/ml. PV as well as serum PSA increases with age. Linear regression analyses showed that PV and serum PSA have an age-dependent log-linear relationship, where 42% of the variance of PV can be explained by PSA and age. ROC's area under the curves (AUC) reveal that PSA has a good predictive value for assessing 'prostate enlargement', with AUC around 82% in the overall age groups irrespective of the PV cut-off values. Optimal serum PSA cut-off values for the overall study population irrespective of age are 2.0 ng/ml to detect PV >30 ml and 2.5 ng/ml to detect PV >40 ml. Conclusions: This study suggests that serum PSA can estimate prostate enlargement sufficiently accurately to be useful for therapeutic, especially medical, management. It is well accepted that the outcome of pharmacotherapy for BPH depends on baseline PV. Therefore, in the absence of reliable direct measurement of PV, serum PSA determination may be used to optimise patient management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)695-700
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Urology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2003


  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms
  • Prostate volume
  • Prostate-specific antigen


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