Prospect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Enhancing Nerve Regeneration in Brachial Plexus Injury in Animals: A Systematic Review

Wahyu Widodo, Indah Suci Widyahening, Irfan Kurnia Pratama, Mohamad Walid Kuncoro

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: Brachial plexus injuries (BPI), although rare, often results in significant morbidity. Stem cell was thought to be one of BPI treatment modalities because of their nerve-forming regeneration potential. Although there is a possibility for the use of mesenchymal stem cells as one of BPI treatment, it is still limited on animal studies. Therefore, this systematic review aimed to analyze the role of mesenchymal stem cells in nerve regeneration in animal models of brachial plexus injury. Method: This study is a systematic review with PROSPERO registration number CRD4202128321. Literature searching was conducted using keywords experimental, animal, brachial plexus injury, mesenchymal stem cell implantation, clinical outcomes, electrophysiological outcomes, and histologic outcomes. Searches were performed in the PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect databases. The risk of bias was assessed using SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies. The data obtained were described and in-depth analysis was performed. Result: Four studies were included in this study involving 183 animals from different species those are rats and rabbits. There was an increase in muscle weight and shortened initial onset time of muscle contraction in the group treated with stem cells. Electrophysiological results showed that mesenchymal stem cells exhibited higher (Compound muscle action potential) CMAP amplitude and shorter CMAP latency than control but not better than autograft. Histological outcomes showed an increase in axon density, axon number, and the formation of connections between nerve cells and target muscles. Conclusion: Mesenchymal stem cell implantation to animals with brachial plexus injury showed its ability to regenerate nerve cells as evidenced by clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological results. However, this systematic study involved experimental animals from various species so that the results cannot be uniformed, and conclusion should be drawn cautiously.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-158
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Animal study
  • Brachial plexus injury
  • Mesenchymal stem cell
  • Nerve
  • Regeneration


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