Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes high mortality and disability worldwide. Animal models have been developed to explore the complex processes in TBI. Propofol is used to manage head injuries during surgical intervention and mechanical ventilation in patients with TBI. Many studies have investigated the neuroprotective effect of propofol on TBI. However, other studies have shown neurotoxic effects. Objectives: To review systematically the literature regarding the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of propofol in rodent models of TBI. Methods: Data from rodents as models of TBI with propofol as one of the intervention agents, and/or comparing the neuroprotective effects of propofol with the other substances in rodent models of TBI, were obtained from PubMed, EBSCO Host, and ProQuest databases. The PRISMA 2020 statement recommendations were followed and research questions were developed based on PICOS guidelines. Data was extracted from the literature using a standardized Cochrane method. Results: We analyzed data from 12 articles on physiological changes of experimental animals before and after trauma, the effects of propofol administration, and the observed neurotoxic effects. The effects of propofol administration were observed in terms of changes in traumatic lesion volume, the release of antioxidants and inflammatory factors, and the neurological function of rodent models of TBI. Conclusion: Propofol has neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects via several mechanisms, and various doses have been used in research to determine its effects. The timing of administration, the dose administered, and the duration of administration contribute to determine the effect of propofol in rodent models of TBI. However, the doses that produce neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects are not yet clear and further research is needed to determine them.
- brain injuries, traumatic