In greenfield toll-road projects, financial sustainability has been a major issue. Many toll roads cannot be operated. Although most of Indonesia's 24 toll road concessions have already been signed by the Toll Road Authority, most of them were caused by financing problems. Three problems have been identified as potential sources of this unsustainability, such as the uncertainty of long-term project revenues, budget constraints provided by the government, and inadequate government support for land acquisitions. This paper aims to investigate the state-of-the-art innovative financing models recently introduced to address financial problems by using a desk study and meta-analysis. The findings are an earmarked tax revenue system, deep discount bonds, take-out financing, tax increment financing, land leases, deferred debts, and private donations.
- Toll Road, Innovative Financing, Desk Study, Meta-analysis