Probiotics and metabolites regulate the oral and gut microbiome composition as host modulation agents in periodontitis: A narrative review

Fathia Agzarine Deandra, Ketherin Ketherin, Rieska Rachmasari, Benso Sulijaya, Naoki Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Periodontitis is defined as an oral bacterial dysbiosis-induced persistent inflammation on dental supporting tissue resulting in periodontal tissue breakdown and alveolar bone destruction. The disease is initiated by the interaction between periodontopathogens and the host immune system. Its development and severity can be associated with several systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, the latest research has suggested that the oral and gut microbiome hypothesis lays the oral and systemic connection mechanism. Bacterial homeostasis and restoration in the oral cavity and intestine become therapeutics concepts. Concerning the treatment of periodontitis, a local inflammatory condition, prolonged systemic administration of antibiotics is no longer recommended due to bacterial resistance issues. Probiotics and several bioactive metabolites have been widely investigated to address the needs of host modulation therapy in periodontitis. Evidence suggests that the use of probiotics helps downregulate the inflammation process through the regulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the production of fatty acid, targeting reactive oxygen species (ROS). In brief, several herbals have anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Consistently, improvement of periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and gingival index (GI) was seen in a group given melatonin as an adjunct treatment. In all, this review will highlight host modulation agents regarding periodontitis therapy, plausible mechanisms on how probiotics and metabolites work on periodontal restoration, and their reported studies. Limitations given by published studies will be elaborated, while future directions will be proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13475
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Host modulation agent
  • Metabolites
  • Microbiome
  • Periodontitis
  • Probiotics


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