Objective: Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease principally caused by a complex interaction between pathogenic bacteria and immune responses. Probiotics stimulate the immune system of the oral mucosa by increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is the anti-inflammatory cytokine that is most closely associated with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. This study assessed the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) containing probiotic lozenges toward clinical attachment loss (CAL) and IL-4 levels in periodontitis patients after scaling and root planing. Materials and Methods: Clinical samples were collected from the gingival crevicular fluid of 16 periodontitis patients with pocket depth (PD) of 6 mm. The samples were divided into two groups. The non-probiotic group included periodontitis patients treated through scaling and root planing (SRP) only (n=8), whereas the probiotic group included periodontitis patients treated through SRP and probiotics (n=8). The measurements of the clinical parameters of PD and CAL were included as diagnostic criteria. Probiotic lozenges were given daily for 14 days. IL-4 levels were measured in both groups using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: IL-4 levels decreased in the non-probiotic group and increased in the probiotic group, but there was no statistical difference between the groups. CAL decreased in both groups and was significantly different. Conclusion: SRP with the consumption of probiotic-containing L.reuteri in periodontitis patients resulted in decreased CAL and increased IL-4 levels compared with SRP only.
- Interleukin-4 (IL-4)
- Scaling and root planing