Prevention and Management of Iron Deficiency/Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Women: An Asian Expert Consensus

Rishma Dhillon Pai, Yap Seng Chong, Lyra Ruth Clemente-Chua, Rima Irwinda, Trang Nguyen Khanh Huynh, Noroyono Wibowo, Maria Corazon Zaida Gamilla, Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The lack of standardized clinical practice impeding the optimal management of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women is a global concern, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region. The aim of this study was to determine best practices through a Delphi consensus process. In Round 1, panelists were asked to rate their level of agreement with 99 statements across four domains: identification, diagnosis and assessment, prevention, and treatment of ID/IDA in women. In Round 2, panelists reappraised their ratings in view of the collective feedback and responses to Round 1. After two rounds, consensus (≥85% agreement) was reached for 84% of the Delphi statements. Experts agreed on the role of presenting symptoms and risk factors in prompting assessments of anemia and iron status in women. Experts repeatedly called for prevention, recommending preventive iron supplementation for pregnant women irrespective of anemia prevalence levels, and for non-pregnant adult women, adolescent girls, and perimenopausal women living in areas with a high prevalence of anemia. Experts unanimously agreed to prescribing oral ferrous iron as first-line therapy for uncomplicated ID/IDA. The recommendations and clinical pathway algorithms generated should be used to inform clinical practice and standardize the care of women at risk or presenting with ID/IDA in the Asia-Pacific region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3125
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • consensus
  • Delphi
  • iron deficiency
  • iron deficiency anemia
  • women


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