Prevalence of Blood Lead among Children Living in Battery Recycling Communities in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

Nurhayati A. Prihartono, Ratna Djuwita, Putri B. Mahmud, Budi Haryanto, Helda Helda, Tri Yunis Miko Wahyono, Timothy Dignam

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12 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to assess the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) among children 1 to 5 years old who reside near and distant to informally used lead-acid battery (ULAB) recycling locations and examine risk factors for elevated BLLs. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three greater Jakarta neighborhoods where informal ULAB recycling occurs. Venous BLLs among 279 children were analyzed using portable blood lead testing machines. Demographic, child activities, and sources of lead exposure inside and outside homes were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with the prevalence of BLLs. Forty-seven percent of children had BLLs ≥ 5 µg/dL and 9% had BLLs ≥ 10 µg/dL. No differences in geometric mean BLLs were observed between children who lived near and distant to ULAB locations. Older child age groups [Prevalence Ratio (PR) 2.14, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.16, 4.18) and low household income (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.03, 2.40) were associated with BLLs 5-9 µg/dL. Low educational attainment of the child's father (PR 3.17, 95% CI 1.23, 8.16) and frequent outdoor child activity (PR 4.93, 95% CI 1.09, 22.21) were predictors of BLLs ≥ 10 µg/dL. This study shows the association between lead exposure among children and environmental sources. Public health officials can consider expanded surveillance, health care provider education, and development of strategies to reduce lead exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1276
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2019


  • battery recycling
  • child
  • environment
  • Indonesia
  • Jakarta
  • lead


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