Prevalence and predicting factors of Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus carrier state in primary schoolchildren

Anisa Rahmadhany, Najib Advani, Mulyadi Djer, Setyo Handryastuti, Dodi Safari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Transmission of Group A Streptococcus from asymptomatic children to their surrounding carries a risk of acute rheumatic fever in susceptible people. Aim and Objectives: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of GAS carrier state and evaluate the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of GAS in Jakarta, Indonesia. Material and Methods: We enrolled 201 asymptomatic schoolchildren (6-12 years) using stratified random sampling from a primary school in Jakarta. None of the children had a history of rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease. All participants underwent physical examination, and laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, antistreptolysin O titer, and throat swab culture. Results: The prevalence of GAS carrier was 13.9% (95% confidence interval: 9.2%-18.6%) in our study. On multivariate analysis, tonsillar enlargement was found to be the only predicting factor of GAS carrier (P = 0.03). GAS was sensitive to penicillin G, erythromycin, vancomycin, clindamycin, chloramphenicol, azithromycin, and tetracycline in 100%, 89%, 86%, 75%, 68%, 68%, and 32% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: The GAS carrier state is common among school-age children affecting approximately 13.9% children. Tonsillar enlargement is a significant finding predictive of GAS carrier state. All isolates are still sensitive to penicillin and mostly sensitive to erythromycin but are increasingly resistant to tetracycline.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)471-475
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Pediatric Cardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2021


  • Acute rheumatic fever
  • antibiotic sensitivity testing
  • group A Streptococcus


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