Background Complex febrile seizures (CFS) have been shownto be related to recurrence and epilepsy. Many studies were doneto determine the predictors of recurrence in both simple and com-plex febrile seizures. To our knowledge until now there is no pub-lished data that specially looks for predictors of recurrence after afirst CFS.Objective To find out clinical and demographical characteristicsof a first CFS and to define the predictors for the recurrent febrileseizures.Methods Prospective survival analysis study was done in chil-dren with first CFS who visited Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital,Jakarta, over 14 months periods. The predictors for developmentof recurrence were analyzed by SPSS for Windows 11.5 usingKaplan-Meier test and Cox regression model with a level of signifi-cance <0.05.Results There were 62 subjects completed this study. Male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. The mean age at onset was 18.2 months.Recurrence occurred in 9 subjects (14.5%). Body temperaturebetween 38-38.5°C (7 of 26 subjects, P=0.02), upper motor neu-ron type of delayed development (3 of 7 subjects, P=0.03), andepileptic history in the family (2 of 2 subjects, P<0.05) were asso-ciated with recurrence in bivariate analysis. In multivariate analy-sis only body temperature between 38-38.5°C (HR 1.6, 95% CI1.0;23.9) and epileptic history in the family (HR 16.9, 95% CI2.8;101.4) were identified as predictors.Conclusion Low body temperature at the first seizures and epi-leptic history in the family were independent predictors for the re-currence after a first CFS.