Predictive factors for treatment retention in methadone programs in Indonesia

Riza Sarasvita, Anne Tonkin, Budi Utomo, Robert Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents the results of a 6-month prospective cohort study of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Indonesia. The study aimed to investigate the predictor variables of retention in MMT in Indonesia. The duration of treatment (in days) was the main outcome of the study. For the study, program, client, social network, and accessibility factors were investigated as potential predictors of retention. The study analyzed the relative weight of each factor in predicting treatment retention. The sample consisted of 178 clients drawn from three participating clinics: Rumah Sakit Ketergantungan Obat and Tanjung Priok in Jakarta and Sanglah in Bali. The 3- and 6-month retention rates were 74.2% and 61.3%, respectively. These rates are comparable with previous studies conducted in developed countries. A survival analysis using a robust estimation for the Cox PH regression found that the strongest predictors of retention were methadone dose followed by an interaction between take-home dose and the experience of the clinic providing this treatment. Other significant predictor variables included age, perceived clinic accessibility, and client's belief in the program. The study concludes that MMT cannot solely rely on the pharmacology for retention but should also promote informed access to take-home doses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-246
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


  • Indonesia
  • Methadone maintenance
  • Predictors
  • Treatment retention


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