Potential Ecological Distributions of Urban Adapters and Urban Exploiters for the Sustainability of the Urban Bird Network

Nurul L. Winarni, Habiburrachman A.H. Fuad, Bhisma G. Anugra, Nabilla Nuril Kaunain, Shania Anisafitri, Mega Atria, Afiatry Putrika

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The bird community in urban areas indicates the species-specific adaptability to urban conditions such as the increase in man-made habitats. Urban adapters and urban exploiters, two groups that make up most of the urban birds, were assessed to determine their suitable habitat and explain their distribution, as well as to determine the environmental predictors for the two bird groups assemblages in Depok, one of Jakarta’s satellite cities. We used the point-count method to survey the birds in three habitat types, green spaces, residentials, and roadside, and then we used Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) to analyze the species distribution modeling. We also the predicted habitat distributions for the urban adapters and urban exploiters based on several environmental predictors. Our results suggest that both urban adapters and urban exploiters were abundant in residential areas. Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) and cave swiflets (Collocalia linchi) were the most common species in all three habitat types. On average, canopy cover was most extensive in green spaces followed by residential and roadside areas. Urban exploiters were likely to have a high suitability extent compared to urban adapters. The distributions of both groups were affected by the distance to perennial water, then by land function for the urban adapters, and distance to patches for the urban exploiters. The presence of urban adapters and urban exploiters in residential areas suggests that home gardens supported critical habitats when green spaces were unavailable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number474
JournalISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • distributions
  • MaxEnt
  • urban adapters
  • urban birds
  • urban exploiters


Dive into the research topics of 'Potential Ecological Distributions of Urban Adapters and Urban Exploiters for the Sustainability of the Urban Bird Network'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this