Population variation in Y-chromosome microdeletion and its role in the evaluation of male infertility management: a systematic review

Ponco Birowo, Isaac Ardianson Deswanto, Nur Rasyid, Widi Atmoko

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Infertility has been a significantly growing problem worldwide, affecting approximately 10-15% of couples within reproductive age. Among the many causes of male infertility, Y-chromosome microdeletion is considered one of the most frequent genetic causes. Thus, this systematic review was constructed to determine the prevalence of Y-chromosome microdeletion and the population variations in the different types of Y-chromosome microdeletions. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Scielo, and Science Direct databases to obtain articles that addressed the frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletion and male infertility. We identified 14 articles that originated from China, India, Iran, Brazil, Indonesia, North America, South Korea, and Slovakia, and the vital information collected included the year of publication, authors, number of patients with different types of Y-chromosome microdeletions, and the proportion of microdeletion in the major affected sub-regions of the Y-chromosome. Results: In this review, we attempted to highlight the variation in the frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletion in different geographical populations. The highest and lowest frequencies of Y-chromosome microdeletion were found in Indonesian (23.94%) and Slovakian (3.5%) populations, respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, Y-chromosome microdeletion was undeniably found to be one of the leading genetic causes of male infertility. Azoospermic factor c (AZFc) microdeletion was the most frequent type of Y-chromosome microdeletion, typically presenting in patients with various clinical manifestations that ranged from oligozoospermia to azoospermia and exhibiting the highest chance for sperm retrieval. This review will undoubtedly help clinicians in providing a more accurate consultation to their patients and determining the success rates of assisted reproductive technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1244
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • azoospermia
  • male infertility
  • microdeletion
  • oligozoospermia
  • Y chromosome


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