Wastewater from the tofu industry contains many pollutants that are very harmful to the environment, significantly endangering aquatic life and producing a pungent odor. This study aims to prepare a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane with the additive polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and utilize it to treat tofu wastewater in the ultrafiltration (UF) process. Flat sheet membranes were prepared using PVDF that was dissolved in N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and then combined with the additive material of PVP at the varying compositions of 14.9/0.1, 14.85/0.15, and 14.8/0.2 g of PVDF/gram of PVP. The addition of PVP was proposed to improve the properties of the membranes. Characterization by scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were performed on the PVDF/PVP membrane flat sheet in order to understand and compare changes in the physical and chemical properties that occurred in the membrane. Prior to the UF process, the tofu wastewater was treated by a coagulation–flocculation process through a jar tester using poly aluminum chloride (PAC) as a coagulant. Based on the membrane characterization, the addition of PVP improved the physical and chemical properties of membranes. The pore size of the membrane becomes larger, which could increase permeability as well as the flux value. The TSS and turbidity of the water produced in the UF process decreased with an increase in feed pressure due to a greater driving force generated to facilitate the penetration of the suspended solids. The UF results showed that the effect of PVP on water flux was greatest for the 14.85/0.15 PVDF/PVP membrane for both pure and wastewater. In addition, the highest percentage of rejection for TSS and turbidity were observed in the 14.9/0.1 PVDF/PVP membrane and rejection for TDS was indicated in the 14.8/0.2 PVDF/PVP membrane. Meanwhile, the resulting pH decreased slightly across all samples as feed pressure increased.
- Tofu wastewater