Context: Besides environmental factors, genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of malocclusion. Polymorphisms of the Myosin 1H gene in orofacial muscle fibers are thought to influence the growth and development of the mandible. Growth hormone receptors are present on the growth of cartilage, especially the condyle of the mandible. The polymorphisms of the growth hormone receptor have an effect on the growth and development of the mandible. The potential of the Myosin 1H and P561T genes as bioindicators in aiding diagnosis of malocclusion is quite good based on the available literature. However, until now there has been no research that has observed genetic analysis on polymorphism-based malocclusion of the Myosin 1H and P561T genes in the Indonesian population. Aims: To determine the relationship between polymorphisms of Myosin 1H and P561T genes, towards the growth and development of the mandible in malocclusion cases. Settings and Design: Subjects were patients aged 17 - 45 years old with skeletal malocclusions who were undergoing or were about to undergo orthodontic treatment at RSGM-FKG UI (Universitas Indonesia's Dental Hospital), with 50 people in each group. Methods and Material: Malocclusions were determined based on radiographic analysis of the initial cephalometry using the Stainer method. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs and blood cells in Class I and II malocclusion while nail clippings and hair follicles extracts were used in Class III malocclusion. DNA sequence amplification was carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction, while Genetic Polymorphism Analysis of Myosin 1H and P561T genes was performed with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson Chi-Square was used to analyze the Myosin 1H gene, while the Fisher Exact Test was used to analyze the P561T gene. Results: A relationship between Myosin 1H gene polymorphism and Class I, II, and III skeletal malocclusion was found. There was no correlation between P561T gene polymorphism and Class I, II, and III skeletal malocclusion. Conclusions: Myosin 1H gene polymorphism is one of the risk factors for Class I, II, and III malocclusion. Extraction of DNA from hair follicles gave good results in terms of DNA quality and was a relatively easier sampling method compared to blood cell purification and buccal swabs.
- Polymorphism of myosin 1H gene
- Polymorphism of P561T gene
- Skeletal malocclusion