Play–Sleep Nexus in Indonesian Preschool Children before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Puji Yanti Fauziah, Erma Kusumawardani, Soni Nopembri, Rizki Mulyawan, Indri Hapsari Susilowati, Susiana Nugraha, Sudibyo Alimoeso, Bonardo Prayogo Hasiholan, Lukman Fauzi, Widya Hary Cahyati, Tandiyo Rahayu, Terence Buan Kiong Chua, Michael Yong Hwa Chia

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1 Citation (Scopus)


The COVID-19 pandemic has transformed Indonesians’ behaviors and has had an impact on many facets of daily life. People’s lives are becoming increasingly dependent on digital technologies, which is a phenomenon with conflicting effects on people’s health and happiness. This cross-sectional study focused on one such influence, namely, how the shift from the period before to during COVID-19 has affected children’s playtime and sleep duration. As part of a multicenter study, 618 adult caregivers (parents, family members, or babysitters) who visited the kindergarten in question on behalf of preschool children aged 2–5 years (4.04 ± 1.39) were surveyed on the children’s play and sleep habits before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, particularly Java Island (before pandemic, N = 309; during pandemic, N = 309). ANOVA was used for a statistical analysis to describe the difference between groups and within time collections. Significant favorable relationships were found between pre-pandemic and post-pandemic playtime and sleeping time on weekdays, weekends, and averaged weekday-weekend (r = 0.437; 0.180 and 0.321, all p < 0.05) were detected. Before the pandemic, children’s playtime (4.11 vs. 3.55 h) and sleep duration (10.92 vs. 10.70 h) were significantly greater on the weekend than on the weekday (p < 0.05) but not during the pandemic (playtime: 3.48 vs. 3.45 h and sleep duration: 10.83 vs. 10.80 h; all p > 0.05). The COVID-19 pandemic had no impact on sleep duration or playtime in Javanese preschool children. Efforts should be intensified to promote the value of playtime and sleep duration among children in this age range so that the future of Indonesian children’s can be ensured.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10695
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • play
  • preschool children
  • sleep


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