Piloting a constructive feedback model for problem-based learning in medical education

Dwiretno Pangastuti, Natalia Widiasih, Diantha Soemantri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Constructive feedback is key to successful teaching and learning. The unique characteristics of problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials require a unique feedback intervention. Based on the review of existing literature, we developed a feedback model for PBL tutorials, as an extension of the feedback facilitator guide of Mubuuke and his colleagues. This study was aimed to examine the perceptions of students and tutors on the feedback model that was piloted in PBL tutorials. Methods: This study employed a qualitative research design. The model was tested in nine online PBL sessions, selected using the maximum variation sampling strategy based on tutors' characteristics. All sessions were observed by the researcher. Afterwards, tutors and students in the PBL sessions were interviewed to explore their perceptions of the model. Results: Three themes were identified based on the perceptions of the tutors and students: cognitive changes, behavioral changes, and challenges of the use of the feedback model. Both tutors and students benefited from improved cognition and behavior. However, the use of the feedback model still encountered some challenges, such as limited sources of feedback data, flexibility and adaptability of the model, content of feedback delivered, students' characteristics and performance, tutors' characteristics and self-perceptions, and supportive infrastructure. Conclusion: The model can be used as a reference for tutors to deliver constructive feedback during PBL tutorials. The challenges identified in using the constructive feedback model include the need for synchronized guidelines, ample time to adapt to the model, and skills training for tutors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-143
Number of pages13
JournalKorean journal of medical education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022


  • Educational model
  • Formative feedback
  • Medical students
  • Problem-based learning


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