Physical reviews of solar radiation models for estimating global solar radiation in Indonesia

Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Muhammad Hanafi Lubis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia is a tropical country that has an equator that has the intensity of the sun throughout the year. Mapping of the potential solar intensity has not been done much, even the measurement data is still very limited. The purpose of this paper is to review 10 solar intensity calculation models that are frequently used. Of the 10 models that provide different physical characteristics, wherefrom the physical characteristics it concludes a suitable model for the Indonesian region. From the statistical evaluation, the solar radiation model proposed by Liu and Jordan shows in a good agreement with the measurement result. The mean bias error for this model is 8.3 W/m2 and root mean square error is 100.9 W/m2, this model shows the lowest error than other models. Additionally, based on the physical factor analysis of environmental conditions in each model, Liu and Jordan's model is suitable for estimating global solar radiation on the defined location in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1206-1211
Number of pages6
JournalEnergy Reports
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Empirical model
  • Indonesia
  • Solar energy
  • Solar radiation


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